This vignette contains a quick introduction.

# Main functions

The main functions of the packages are designed to calculate distance-based measures of spatial structure. Those are non-parametric statistics able to summarize and test the spatial distribution (concentration, dispersion) of points.

The classical, topographic functions such as Ripley’s *K* are provided by the *spatstat* package and supported by *dbmss* for convenience.

Relative functions are available in *dbmss* only. These are the \(M\) and \(m\) and \(K_d\) functions.

The bivariate \(M\) function can be calculated for *Q. Rosea* trees around *V. Americana* trees:

# Confidence envelopes

Confidence envelopes of various null hypotheses can be calculated. The univariate distribution of *Q. Rosea* is tested against the null hypothesis of random location.

```
## Generating 100 simulations by evaluating expression ...
## 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40,
## 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80,
## 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100.
##
## Done.
```

Significant concentration is detected between about 10 and 20 meters.